At some point, your child has or will have a temper tantrum. It’s a fact of life, like birth, death, and taxes. Your child will become so overwhelmed that they will lose control and physically express their distress. Temper tantrums can be embarrassing and frustrating for caregivers. Let’s look at unpacking and normalizing tantrums, what they are, why they occur, and, more importantly, how you can diffuse and support your little person when they get overwhelmed.
What is a tantrum?
A tantrum is an external show of internal distress. You might notice disorganized behavior such as screaming, crying, arching their back, stiff limbs, kicking, punching, and running away. They might even harm themselves in some way. Vomiting, self-injurious behavior (banging head, scratching self, hair-pulling), or holding their breath can also occur. Tantrums are equally present in male and female children and usually occur between ages one and three. For some children, tantrums arise infrequently. Some have them often. The intensity and behaviors displayed will also differ between children.
So why do tantrums occur?
When tantrums are most common (one to three years), our children are doing a lot of social and emotional development. But they don’t yet have the words to express their big feelings. All our children can comprehend is the physical sensation of the emotion, which can be very uncomfortable. However, the feeling itself can present unpredictably. It can be intense and confusing, making our children feel out of control. Feeling out of control or confused can overwhelm children because they don’t understand what is happening in their bodies or why. This can feed into or exacerbate their distress.
Our children are also really trying to exert their independence at this age. Another reason our children might have tantrums is that they begin to realize their behavior impacts and influences other people’s reactions/responses. A tantrum might be the only way our kids can express themselves or control their environment.
8 Strategies to Help Tame Tantrums
1. Identify triggers.
You can’t and shouldn’t avoid big emotions. We all need to learn how to accept and cope with our feelings. But you can plan better to help your child (and yourself). If you know that your little person gets overwhelmed when you go for groceries (the trigger here is potentially being tired/overstimulated/hungry, etc.), you wouldn’t avoid getting groceries. But you would figure out what the trigger is and try and ensure their need is met before you go. For example, have a nap first and take some snacks with you. Or play at a park to exert energy and then get the groceries.
2. Fill their cups.
We all have cups (needs) that need to be filled each day. When our cups are full, we are more resilient. We have needs like hunger, thirst, sleep, emotional connection, safety, attention, etc. When these primary needs are met, our stress levels are reduced. So ensure that your child’s cup is filled each day, so they feel less overwhelmed and can better cope instead of having a tantrum.
3. Reduce stimuli.
Our little people’s brains are growing at a tremendous rate, and they are learning so much and taking in so many new concepts each day. This means it is easy for them to become overstimulated. So, if you reduce the stimuli they need to process, they have more capacity to regulate and calm down. To reduce the stimuli, try this:
- Drop your voice down low and slow the pace of your words
- Remove stimulation (screens, loud noises like crowds, or the situation they are in)
- Provide sensory regulation. It could be touch (a firm hug or no contact, a soft toy to stroke or playdough to squeeze hard), sensory (provide essential oils or fresh air, calm breathing), or sound (peaceful music or potentially silence). For more ideas, read about sensory self-care here.
- Create a calming corner in your home. This is a safe and comfortable place for children to calm their bodies and process their big emotions. It can be used in place of time out and can help your child feel safe and secure and develop emotional regulation.
4. Acknowledge and name their big feelings to help give them context.
It seems too simple but think back to when you were having a hard day and told another person about it. A response like, “Oh, it’s not that bad, calm down!” will likely make you feel more frustrated. However, an empathetic response like, “I can hear how angry you are right now. It must have been such a tough day for you!” results in feeling connected, heard, and acknowledged. The appropriate response can be calming and soothing as our emotional connection needs are met and we feel secure/safe. Your child is also learning how to make sense of their internal processes. So when you name their feelings, you help them understand what is happening and why. The situation feels less confusing, and they feel less overwhelmed and more capable of coping. Here are some examples of appropriate empathetic responses to a tantrum:
- I can see you are so angry right now because your brother took your toy without asking.
- You must have felt sad when you didn’t win that game.
- It sounds like that made you feel really frustrated.
5. Consistency is key.
If you don’t have firm or consistent boundaries, it can create a stress or fear response in your child because they don’t know what to expect from a situation. This, in turn, can increase their need to feel in control, or they may feel overwhelmed. Both can result in increased tantrums. If you have set a rule, you must enforce it gently yet firmly every time. Essentially, you want your child to understand what you expect from them. And you want them to feel secure and safe in knowing the outcome of a situation. Being consistent also helps teach them about actions and consequences.
An excellent way to keep consistency is to give many warnings before transitioning to a new activity. My daughter is a creature of habit and becomes distressed when we need to leave something she is engaged in and move to the next activity. From a very early age, we implemented the countdown and a consequence. I get down on her level, speak clearly, and make eye contact. Then I tell her, “We have one more minute left to play, and then we need to leave. I’ll count down, so you know how long you have left.” I then give her warnings at the 30-second mark (30 seconds left to play), 10 seconds (we have ten more seconds to play), and then I’ll count down from 5. At that point, I offer my hand and start to move away.
If she doesn’t come willingly, I will offer choices (consequences) and name her emotions: “I can see you are enjoying yourself, and you feel frustrated that we have to leave. But it’s time to go home now. If you don’t walk with me, I will have to help you by carrying you back to the car. Which will it be?” Giving her a choice gives her back some control. But I’ve been clear the consequence is me taking her back to the car rather than being able to walk herself.
And yes, I have carried a screaming toddler back to my car through a crowded shopping center! But these days, as I finish counting down and get to about 3 seconds left, she willingly drops the activity or steps away, and off we go. She comes willingly because she knows I will follow through.
6. Don’t be embarrassed!
Even if you feel so mortified that you wish the floor would open up and swallow you whole, try not to sweat it. If you feel embarrassed, you might try to avoid the situation by avoiding triggers entirely or giving in. Your child will also pick up on your unease and play to this by using tantrums to control a situation. You could move your child away from prying eyes and speak quietly to them, or move them to a safe place where they can complete their tantrum.
Who cares if people are looking? You are the parent or caregiver, and this is your situation to manage. And you are demonstrating your skill and compassion as a parent by managing their tantrums with boundaries and in compassionate ways. If you look cool, calm, and collected, people are likelier to think that “you’ve got this” (and you do!).
7. Help them regulate.
Model calm breathing. Get them to do some star jumps to expel excess energy. Get some bubbles out and blow them. Your child will start to co-regulate with you and will slowly calm down. And they will connect with your soothing energy and activities aimed at self-regulating.
8. Walk the walk.
Model to your child how to deal with frustration and deal with them calmly when they have a tantrum. Show them how this looks:
- Lower your voice, get on their level, and make eye contact.
- Speak to them about their behavior (no blaming or shaming our children).
- Save lectures or big discussions about behavior for when you are both feeling calm (if they are overwhelmed, they won’t take it anyway).
- Move on swiftly and don’t dwell on the issue.
Also, show them how you manage challenges. Narrate your feelings and your strategies to cope. “I’m feeling upset because I spilled my coffee on my shirt. I will take a few deep breaths, and once I’m feeling better, I will start cleaning up.”
Regardless of the origin of a tantrum, you want to ensure the outcome is the reparation of your relationship with your child. Sometimes as caregivers, we bear the brunt of their behavior and struggles because we are their safe place. Being a “safe place” isn’t always the nicest thing, as you take the brunt of the shouting, angry words, and tantrums. But you are their everything, their whole world.
You should always name the behaviors your child demonstrates, but never aim comments at your child. “It’s not kind to hit” lands very differently than “You aren’t kind when you hit.” Comments aimed at your child (not the behavior) impact our little people’s self-esteem and sense of self-worth.
It’s so important to remember after each tantrum to reconnect for both of your sakes, whether connecting with a cuddle, a kind word, an “I love you,” a held hand, reading a book together, or one on one time. Reach out intentionally to show them that regardless of their behavior, you love them unconditionally. This feeling of security and trust will go a long way toward taming those tantrums in the long run.